Many individuals experience a decline in energy levels and alertness during the afternoon, but for those suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the impact is much more severe. Fortunately, a recent study has identified potential pharmacological interventions that offer hope for individuals with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) caused by OSA. This article aims to delve into the findings of the study and explore the potential benefits and drawbacks of these medications.
Excessive daytime sleepiness significantly disrupts the lives of individuals with OSA. Tasks that are typically simple become challenging due to overwhelming urges to sleep at inappropriate times, such as during meals or while driving. Although positive airway pressure (PAP) masks are commonly used to support the respiratory system during sleep, they may not completely alleviate EDS. Consequently, researchers are actively investigating pharmacological alternatives to address this debilitating symptom.
A team of researchers from McMaster University in Canada conducted a comprehensive review of 14 previous clinical trials involving 3,085 individuals with OSA and EDS. The study aimed to assess the comparative effectiveness of three anti-fatigue medications: solriamfetol, armodafinil-modafinil, and pitolisant. The results indicated that all three medications outperformed placebos in combating EDS to varying degrees.
Of the three medications examined, solriamfetol demonstrated the most significant statistical difference in terms of wakefulness when compared to a placebo. This finding may be attributed to the medication’s impact on increasing levels of norepinephrine, which prepares the body for action, and dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and motivation.
While armodafinil-modafinil and pitolisant were also found to improve some measures of wakefulness, the evidence was less conclusive compared to solriamfetol. Additionally, there were concerns regarding the potential side effects associated with armodafinil-modafinil and solriamfetol. Patients were more likely to discontinue the use of armodafinil-modafinil due to these side effects.
In light of these findings, further investigation of solriamfetol is warranted, particularly regarding its long-term effects. Currently, there is limited evidence on the prolonged use of this medication. Moreover, the potential benefits of these anti-fatigue medications extend beyond individuals with OSA and EDS. Researchers are eager to explore their efficacy in treating related conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome and long COVID, provided they share underlying mechanisms.
Two of the medications examined in this study, armodafinil-modafinil and solriamfetol, are already prescribed for OSA and EDS. On the other hand, pitolisant is still under review by the US FDA. The choice of medication depends on various factors, including the patient’s overall health profile. However, this research marks the first direct comparison between these medications, shedding light on their respective effectiveness.
Although these medications show promise in alleviating EDS, it is crucial to exercise caution due to potential side effects, such as increased blood pressure associated with solriamfetol. As the prevalence of OSA reaches alarming levels globally, with an estimated billion affected individuals, it is imperative to swiftly develop more effective treatments.
Between 15 to 30 percent of individuals in North America are diagnosed with OSA, indicating a significant public health concern. The findings of this study provide a glimmer of hope for individuals experiencing EDS associated with OSA. While the medications assessed demonstrated varying degrees of effectiveness, solriamfetol exhibited the most promising results in combating EDS. However, more comprehensive research is required to understand the long-term implications and potential applications of these medications in treating related conditions beyond OSA and EDS.